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Saturday, 26 August 2017

TURBO CHARGER WORKING TECHNIC......INTER COOLER, KNOCKING, TURBO LAG

Hello friends , 

    Here i am with a new article on turbo charger. In this i have explained many things on turbocharger i.e. 
  1. what is a turbo charger?
  2. Parts & construction of a turbocharger?
  3. Working mechanisim of a turbocharger?
  4. Neaturally aspired engine??
  5. Use of intercooler??
  6. Problems cause by using turbo charger??
  7. knocking?
  8. turbo lag?
  9. Turbocharger vs Supercharger?

What is a Turbocharger??

To increase engine efficiency & power output of a IC engine , A turbo charger is used.It uses  force induction technology to improve efficency.In simple the principle of a turbocharger is , it forces air into the engine so the mixture will burn more which will improve power output. It also uses the exhaust gas of engine , thus it increase efficiency.

HOW-TURBOCHARGER-WORKS
By Quentin Schwinn (NASA) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Naturally Aspirated ENGINE

A simple engine which intakes air through atmospheric pressure, it does not depends upon the force induction pressure. Generally many sports car uses this type of technology to avoid turbo lag.

Parts & construction of turbocharger

A turbo charger is nothing but a centrifugal compressor. The principle here is force induction . it’s the process of forcing compressed air into the intake for combustion. First lets see the basic parts of a turbo charger 
  1. Compressor Housing
  2. Compressor Wheel 
  3. Turbine Wheel 
  4. Turbine Housing
  5. Connecting Shaft Bearing  &
  6. Oil wheels

The middle part whole together is called a turbo cartridge. The compressor wheel & turbine wheel are connected with a shaft. So that the turning of turbine wheel will turn the compressor wheel. A turbo charger is designed to rotate over a hundred thousand rpm. An oil feed line from the engine will lubricate the shaft & the bearings provided will decrease the friction So that there will be very less friction.

TURBO CHARGER WORKING TECHNIC

An engine without any force induction device is a natural aspirated engine. In an engine the air is pulled through an air filter by the suction force of the friction.Then it gets mixed with fuel , compressed & gets ignited.With a turbo charger a turbine wheel is introduced. The exhaust gas from combustion turn the turbine wheel. This turns the compressor wheel as turbine wheel is connected to the compressor wheel rigidly through a shaft, so that more air is compressed & fed to the engine .Lets take a closer look at the image , The exhaust gas from the engine will push the turbine wheel & this turn the compressor wheel forcing more air into the engine .


USE OF INTER COOLER


According to the gas law , at constant volume increase the air pressure will increase the temperature .So there will be a difference in temperature in air after charging. Forcing this hot air into the engine can can reduce  the efficiency & can cause knocking. In order to cool that air an inter cooler is introduced. An inter cooler is an air to air heat exchanger device which cools the charged air before it goes into the turbine.So introducing an inter cooler into the system will increase the charge density by cooling the air and provides volumetric efficiency.




In conclusion a turbo charger will provide more air into the engine to expand on combustion& will produces more power. That’s how a turbo charger works.


TURBO CHARGER VS SUPERCHARGER


  1. Turbo charger is driven by a turbine , But a super charger is driven mechanically drictely by engine
  2. Turbocharger uses the waste , Supercharger it does not
  3. Turbocharger shows more efficiency, Supercharger shows low efficiency
  4. Turbocharger doesn't put load on engine, But Supercharger does.
  5. Turbocharger causes knocking , But Supercharger doesn't.


PROBLEMS CAUSE BY TURBO CHARGER


1. KNOCKING

Knocking in an internal-combustion engine  is sharp sounds caused by pre combustion of part of the compressed air-fuel mixture in the cylinder.
However, at high compression ratio, depending on the composition of the fuel, some of the charge may ignite ahead of the flame front and burn in an uncontrolled manner which will producing intense high-frequency pressure waves. These pressure waves force parts of the engine to vibrate which produces an audible knock.

Knocking can cause overheating of the spark-plug points, erosion of the combustion chamber surface, and rough, inefficient operation. It can be avoided by adjusting certain variables of engine design and operation, such as compression ratio and burning time.

2. TURBO LAG

Turbocharger lag (turbo lag) is the time required to change power output in response to a throttle change, noticed as a hesitation or slowed throttle response when accelerating as compared to a naturally aspirated engine.Also a modification gas been done in turbocharger to avoid turbo lag, that is called as variable geometry.




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