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Sunday, 3 September 2017

THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT ROCKET ENGINE.....HOW CRYOGENIC ENGINE/ROCKET ENGINE WORKS

WHAT IS CRYOGENIC? WHY IT IS USE? WHAT IS CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE? CRYOGENIC SYSTEM? CRYOGENIC APPLICATION? CRYOGENIC FUELS?HOW CRYOGENIC ENGINE WORKS?

HOW CRYOGENIC ENGINE/ROCKET ENGINE  WORKS


HELLO FRIENDS , 
              This topic is  on cryogenic system which is also known as rocket engine. In this topic you will find all and everything about cryogenic engine.Basically in this series I will write on cryogenic in rocket engine & in vehicles. I am making it into 2 parts i.e.
  • Part1- cryogenic , cryogenic temperature , cryogenic system , cryogenic principle , cryogenic uses & application
  • Part2- cryogenic engine , how cryogenic engine works

PART 1
Let’s know what is cryogenic?
           Cryogenic relates to the study of production & behaviour of material at very low temperature. Well it is not defined at what temperature the refrigeration ends & cryogenic starts, but it is considered to start at starts at or below −150 °C (123 K, −238 °F). In simply it is the temperature at which a gas starts to liquefy or can be stored as a liquid.we can say this temperature is not present on the earth naturally , we have to create it artificially .

 Cryogenic Principle


The principle is when the refrigeration ends below it, cryogenic stages starts. Earths atmosphere does not produce this amount of lowest temperature, so artificially make it possible to archive that lowest temperature which can covert gases such as methane, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen to liquid.

Necessity of cryogenic fuels in rocket

 Cryogenic fuels is mostly use in rocket engines . Specially in space according to the requirement  normal liquid fuels cannot be used due the absent of environment and also a big thrust is necessary . So in that case gas can be used , but the problem with gas is it needs a big space due to its volume which can affect rocket science . If we can can take the gas into liquid from to the space , the problem can be solved . Here the cryogenic principle comes . In rockets ,  gas is stored in liquid form at a temperature of 20°K (-423°F) for hydrogen as a fuel and 90°K (-297°F) for oxygen as a oxidizer .

Uses of cryogenic

1.  To store gases in liquid state
2.  Can be used in vehicle
3.  Vastly use in rockets etc.
4.  Used in medical and biological process.
5.  Use in production of LNG.
6.  At this temperature air can be separated  into various elements. 

How Cryogenic System works

The system used to store gases in cryogenic stage is known as cryogenic stage.The system only involves those equipment’s which is necessary to maintain cryogenic temperature .
These low temperatures are generally achieved by a refrigeration cycle.
Main elements are ….

                                 1. Refrigerant (gaseous)
                                 2. Compressor
                                 3. Main material to be cool
                                 4. Expansion tube


There are several stages includes i.e.

In first stage, the refrigerant( gaseous) is Compressed and in a compressor.
Next stage includes cooling of the compressed refrigerant.The heat from this cooling process is used in the compressor.

In next stage the refrigerant moves to the expansion tube cools to its condense point.After condensing ,  the compressed cooled refrigerant  came in touch with the material to be cooled. It lowers the temperature of the material to cryogenic temperatures.

After cooling the refrigerant again heats & prepared for the next cycle.



pros & cons

pros- very simple system.

Cons-
            1.hazardous condition due to extreme condition situation.
            2.very high energy required to archive this low temperature.


HOW CYROGENIC/ROCKET ENGINE WORK


Lets know first what is  cryogenic engine….

Cryogenic Engines

Cryogenic engines are the rocket engines which gives a high thrust to push rocket forward. It is named as cryogenic engine because it is designed to operate at a very low temperature. The machine parts are also cooled  so that the fuel will not heat up.Due to the high fuel efficiency of cryogenic efficiency it performs on rockets very well. But the only disadvantages is the fuels are needs to store at a safe placed far from combustion chamber , which makes it bulky.


How cryogenic engine work

  • The movement logic of rocket is based in a simple logic i.e. engine burns the fuel, burned fuel goes through a nozzle that develops a very high thrust which pushes the vehicle(rocket) to move forward .In this system everything is depends upon the cryogenic engines.
  • In a cryogenic engine only fuel can not burn due to absent of oxygen(helps to burn). So a separate tank is carried in which oxidizer is stored which is normally  oxygen in liquid form .
  • To initiate burning in combustion chamber , first fuel needs to enter into the combustion chamber . For that some pressure is necessary inside the storage tank. For that a separate unit named as pressurized gas unit works . It contains some pressurised gas (helium) which expands in the heat exchanger and create pressure inside the storage tank (for fuel & oxidizer) .It ensure the proper feed of fuel.
  • Then the fuel flows in two types of turbo pumps via a valve . The first type is low pressure turbo pump and the second type is high pressure turbo pump.
  • After the turbo pump fuel enters the preburner which expands the fuel into gaseous form .
  • From the preburner fuel enters into the combustion chamber where it is ignited , burns , then exhaust through a nozzle . Thus produces the thrust.
  • A secondary supply system is also used to preheat the fuel at both low & high pressure turbo pumps (for fuel & oxidizer).
  • Also a cooling system is introduced to cool the nozzle in which excess high pressure fuel (at high pressure turbo pumps) is used as a cooling agent. This also improves the efficiency.


Notes-

  •         The fuel tank & oxidizer tank pressure should be more than combustion chamber pressure.
  •         The fuel should be kept safely from combustion chamber.


List of components-


 Fuel & oxidizer storing system
      Pressurised gas system
      Valves
      Turbo pumps (low & high)
      Preburner
      Combustion chamber
      Nozzle


Nozzle shape

The design of nozzle ensures proper boosting & development thrust to archive high efficiency.


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18 comments:

  1. very informative article thanks for sharing :)

    ReplyDelete
  2. interesting to read about the rocket engine. Always wonder how it works glad to have read it here.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. thanks SHERRY SAW, i am really happy that i made you to know how it works. Thanks again....

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  3. I am not particularly an engineering freak but this is interesting to know...

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    Replies
    1. Thanks MIERA NADHIRAH TAN , Engineering is interesting . I am a big engineering Freak.

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  4. great techie info u have! - racheal

    ReplyDelete
  5. I should let my brother read this post.. Very interesting and related to my brother's interests.

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    Replies
    1. Thanks BLAIR VILLANUEVA for commenting. Engineering is a very interesting field. I am so glad that your brother like it .

      Delete
  6. thanks for sharing this technical information to us.

    Check it out - Alltechknowledge

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Shukhwant Sharma , i am so glad that u comment.I have visited your website & Its really cool . I also go through your fb info and i found "Currently he is studying and Soon will be a good multinational company's employ", i really wish you to be there. Thanks again.

      Delete
  7. Good information. Thanks for sharing

    ReplyDelete
  8. I have total 0 knowledge about this! Thanks for the writeup, feel really great to read some different type of genre blog =)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for reading this ... This website only based on technical information and engineering.

      Delete
  9. This is such a great info for people that is not very familiar with the aerospace thing. Appreciate if you could organize the font to make it easier to read :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for reading this...And thanks again for your suggestion , i will Definitely improve it.

      Delete
  10. Thanks for the sharing. And now i know what is cryogenic and how it works.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. HA HA HA ..... THANKS FOR READING THIS & ALSO THANKS FOR THSI COMMENT.

      Delete

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